History of Computers II computer tips & tricks II

History of Computers


Charl Babage  Lucaian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University in England Proposed a machine which he named the Analytical Engine in 1830’S Babbage’S machine – a dream to many of his contemporaries – would have incorporated a punched card input, a memory unit an arithmetic unit automatic printout sequential program control and 20-place accuracy. Even after Babbage’s death in 1871,punched card ruled the world of data processing- right up to 1937.
In 1937 a Harvard Professor named Howard Aiken set out to build an automatic calculating machine to combine clectrical and mechanical technology with the puched card techniques. With the help of graduate students and IBM engineers. The project was completed in 1944. The completed device was known as the Mark I Digital Computer.
The frist prototype electronic computer was conceived in the winter 1937-1938 by Dr. john Vincent Atanasoff, a professor of physies and Mathematics at IOWA state college.
During 1940 and 1941, John w. Mauchly who was working at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering of University of Pennsylvania teamed up with j. presper Eckert jr a graduate engineering student at the Moore School to Organise the construction of ENIAC was the frist electronic general purpose computer to be put into full operation Funded by the U.S Army. It was built as a secret wartime project at the Moore School . Although it weighed 30 tons and occupied the space of a three bedroom house. ENIAC could do only 300 multiplications per second Eckert and Mauchly founded their own company in 1946 and began to work on the Universal Automatic computer , or UNIVAC In early 1951 the first UNIVAC-1 became operational at the Census Bureau.
When UNIVAC-1 displaced IBM punched card equipment at the Census Bureau. Thomas J.Watson  Jr .the son of IBM’S founder reacted quickly to move IBM into the computer age the IBM 650 became operational in Boston in late 1954 AS a comparatively inexpensive machine for that time, it was widely accepted.
The computer of the second generation which began to appear in 1959 were made smaller and faster and had greater computing capacity. The practice of writing application programs in machine languages gave way to the use of higher – level programming languages And the Vacuum rube. With its relatively short life gave way to compact solid state components like the transistors that had been developed at Bell Laboratories in 1947 by john Bardeed, Willram Shockiey and Walter Brattain.

Second generation systems were rather specialized they were designed to process either scientific or non-scientific applications, but they were not meant to do well in both the environments that situation changed in 1964 when IBM announced a third generation of computering hardware,its system 360 family for main frame computers of each processor in this family had a large set of built in instructions which it could execute some of these instructions were particularly useful in seientific processing while 

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